Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the main cause of disability and premature death in our country and the world.
The underlying pathology is atherosclerosis, which develops over many years, and usually becomes serious by the time symptoms begin to be observed, usually in middle age.
Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity, and the harmful use of alcohol.
People with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease (due to the presence of one or more risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or a pre-existing disease) need early detection and care through counseling and, if necessary, taking medications.
Recommendations for the restoration of the cardiovascular system
- Stop using tobacco
Smoking by patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is unacceptable, even in small quantities. According to various studies, when smoking, the risk of getting sick increases by 2-7 times, smokers get a heart attack 2-6 times more often than non-smokers, and mortality among them increases by 2-3 times. Among smokers, patients with coronary artery disease are 5 times more likely to experience sudden death than among non-smokers.
Smoking stimulates the release of highly active substances (epinephrine, norepinephrine, etc.) into the blood, which, in elevated concentrations, contribute to damage to the walls of blood vessels.
Smoking also speeds up the number of heartbeats (one cigarette smoked by about 8-10 beats per minute), increases blood pressure, stress on the heart, and myocardial oxygen demand. Promotes spasms of blood vessels, increases blood viscosity, and a tendency to thrombosis.
When tobacco is burned, harmful substances are released that have a detrimental effect not only on the heart and blood vessels but also on many other organs and systems of the human body.
- Eat right and control your weight
The harm of excess unbalanced nutrition lies in the fact that the body accumulates cholesterol, triglycerides, saturated fatty acids, and other substances consumed with food in large quantities, which increase the risk of heart and vascular disease.
Nutrition should be varied, rich in vitamins, with a sufficient amount of complete proteins, trace elements.
You can read more about proper nutrition in the article on diet after a heart attack.
- Be physically active
Today, everyone knows about the necessity and unconditional benefits of physical training. The greatest positive effect has physical exercises that are performed in an aerobic mode, with sufficient oxygen supply to the tissues of the body. These include all types of cyclic (repeatedly repeated) movements. These are walking, jogging, swimming, Nordic walking, skiing, etc. The most accessible and easy to do is walking. It is recommended to walk at least 4-6 km daily.
At least 30 minutes of daily physical activity helps prevent heart attack and stroke
For people with diseases of the heart and blood vessels, a sharp increase in physical activity can have a negative impact. The increased demands of the body for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of metabolic products dramatically increase the load on the cardiovascular system. In patients with atherosclerosis, the coronary arteries are unable to expand, which leads to a mismatch between the needs of the heart muscle for oxygen and its delivery. Oxygen starvation of the heart muscle occurs, which can result in irreversible changes (myocardial infarction). Also, oxygen starvation of the myocardium can cause severe, sometimes incompatible with life, heart rhythm disturbances.
Before you start physical training, you need to consult a doctor.
The main condition for the safety of physical training is moderation and a gradual increase in stress. If there is a pronounced palpitation or severe shortness of breath, you should stop and rest.
It is not recommended to exercise immediately after eating, it is better to do physical training on an empty stomach or not earlier than an hour after eating.
We recommend exercising under the supervision of a doctor, the guidance of a trainer, or an exercise therapy instructor.
4. Reduce the degree of emotional stress
This is a very difficult task, depending on the characteristics of the character of each person and the people around him. Emotional stress contributes to the development of hypertension and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythm).
Symptoms of stress:
bad mood, melancholy, despair;
decreased interest and pleasure in familiar things;
anxiety and internal tension, irritation;
guilt and pessimism about the future;
low self-esteem and feelings of self-doubt;
confusion, difficulty concentrating and making a decision;
apathy, lack of desire to communicate;
fatigue, insomnia, metabolic disorders.
If you are unable to cope with stress on your own, be sure to consult a psychologist. The recommendations of the doctor and the therapy prescribed by him will allow you to quickly restore your health and develop the skills of adequate reactions to the stressful situations that arise in your life.
- Refer to antiplatelet therapy if necessary
The doctor prescribes medicines, prescribes funds after a thorough medical examination based on the established diagnosis and the results of research.
In this article, we used materials from the World Health Organization (WHO)