Therapeutic nutrition should be aimed at alleviating and improving the functions of the heart, combating edema, normalizing metabolic processes and removing metabolic products from the body.
food is prepared without salt;
limited foods and dishes that excite the cardiovascular and nervous system, irritating the digestive organs and excretion: extractives of meat, fish, mushrooms, essential oils of vegetables, fried foods, strong tea and coffee;
foods rich in coarse fiber and capable of causing fermentation and flatulence in the intestines are excluded;
eating 5-6 times a day in small portions (heavy food leads to a rise in the diaphragm, which worsens the work of the heart).
Features of the preparation of the first dietary dishes for cardiovascular diseases
Diets include vegetarian and milk soups.
Limited use of secondary broths, which contain less nitrogenous extractives, including purine bases (for diseases of the cardiovascular system with circulatory failure I – IIA degree).
To preserve aromatic substances, give the fat, and then the dish a beautiful color (due to carotenoids), reduce the time of heat treatment, the roots are sautéed in butter (clarified) or vegetable oils (sunflower, olive, corn).
Onions in order to reduce the amount of irritating substances (sulfur-containing compounds, essential oils, etc.) are used only after cooking. The onion is first blanched. To improve the taste, blanched onions are sautéed.
To improve the taste of medicinal dishes that do not contain salt and extractives, tomatoes, citric acid, and spicy vegetables are used. Citric acid is administered in an amount of 0.05 g, bay leaf – 0.02 per serving.
For vitaminization in ready-made soups, you can add green onions after blanching and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley, dill – from 1.5 to 5 g per serving (0.3 g dried). Soups are seasoned with butter and sour cream.
Shchi from fresh cabbage
White or Savoy cabbage is shredded, and Brussels sprouts are left whole, removing the spoiled leaves. Some varieties of early cabbage have a bitter taste due to the high content of glycosides. Such cabbage before cooking is dipped in boiling water for 2-3 minutes. Carrots, turnips, parsley, onions are cut into slices. Turnips are pre-blanched, and then, together with parsley, they are stewed in broth or water with the addition of a small amount of oil. The onions are blanched and then sautéed. Carrots are sautéed.
Cabbage is put into boiling broth or water, brought to a boil, prepared vegetables are added and boiled for 20-30 minutes. 5-10 minutes before the end of cooking, put fresh tomatoes, cut into slices, after scalding and removing the skin from them. If cabbage soup is cooked with potatoes, then it is cut into slices and laid after cabbage.
On the surface of the finished dish – spangles of fat, vegetables are soft, but not overcooked, retain the shape of the cut, the color of the liquid part is gray; the taste is sweetish with the aroma of browned vegetables. Before serving, you can add a piece of boiled meat, sour cream and sprinkle with herbs.
Sauerkraut soup and green cabbage soup are not recommended for cardiovascular diseases.
Shredded fresh cabbage is placed in boiling water or vegetable broth and brought to a boil, stewed beets are added along with browned (poached) roots and onions and boiled for 5-10 minutes. Pour in the diluted flour passerovka, boil (10 minutes), season with sugar, citric acid and bring to readiness (5-10 minutes). Borscht is tinted with beetroot infusion.
If borsch is cooked with potatoes, then it is cut into cubes, the rest of the vegetables into strips and put into a boiling liquid after cabbage. Flour passerovka is not added.
Before serving, a piece of boiled meat, meatballs, sausages, sour cream are added to the borscht, sprinkled with herbs.
Prepared with cereals, pasta, vegetables in milk with the addition of water in an amount of 15 to 60% relative to the mass of milk. Cereals (except semolina) are pre-boiled in water until almost cooked, and then boiling milk is added, stirring continuously. Pasta is placed directly into boiling milk. When serving, put a piece of butter on a plate.
Ready for spring and summer. This group includes soups based on vegetable, beetroot and fruit and berry broths, yogurt, kefir and other fermented milk products, bread kvass. With cardiovascular diseases, onions are limited.
Grated raw beets or chopped boiled, peeled fresh cucumbers, chopped green onions, dill are diluted with beetroot broth. Part of the broth can be replaced with curdled milk or kvass. Season to taste with sugar and citric acid. Served with boiled egg and sour cream.